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Southampton was organized from Lurgan territory in 1783, the year before Franklin County was formed, the southwestern portion of Cumberland County, which itself had been erected as separate county from Lancaster County in 1750. In 1786, the list of taxables and freemen of Southampton contained the name of 113 taxables and 27 freemen.

The Township Supervisors held their meetings in the home of one of the supervisors. Then it had offices successively in the Peoples National Bank, and Orrstown Bank. The present township building was built in 1977 at a cost of $110,000 including the furniture and carpeting. The furniture was built in the Camp Hill Prison by inmates. An addition was added 1994-95 at a cost of $100,000 plus. Money for the original building was obtained by saving all the Revenue Sharing money that was paid to the Township during the 1970’s.

The main business in Southampton Township has been farming, and to this day still is the main business.

At one time Southampton Township had eleven one-room schools of which ten were built before 1868. Today only two remain standing: one now a dwelling, and one a community center. Only three private schools operate in the Township.